It reappeared in 1921 in a report by Rosenstock in which he argued that ‘adult education required special teachers, methods and philosophy, and he used the term andragogy to refer collectively to these special requirements’ (Nottingham Andragogy Group 1983: v).Eduard Lindeman was the first writer in English to pick up on Rosenstock’s use of the term. As Stewart, his biographer, comments, ‘the new term seems to have impressed itself upon no one, not even its originators’.These encourage the learner to identify needs, set objectives, enter learning contracts and so on.
In the minds of many around the adult education field, andragogy and the name of Malcolm Knowles have become inextricably linked. Each of these assertions and the claims of difference between andragogy and pedagogy are the subject of considerable debate.as in the case of andragogy) or looking through the lens of a coherent conceptual system.Undoubtedly he had a number of important insights, but because they are not tempered by thorough analysis, they were a hostage to fortune – they could be taken up in an ahistorical or atheoretical way.For Knowles, andragogy is premised on at least four crucial assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners that are different from the assumptions about child learners on which traditional pedagogy is premised. Useful critiques of the notion can be found in Davenport (1993) Jarvis (1977a) Tennant (1996) (see below).