Dating the turin shroud
It is claimed that there is type AB blood on the shroud. Blood has not been identified on the shroud directly, but it has been identified on sticky tape that was used to lift fibrils from the shroud. Other tests by Adler and Heller have identified it as blood.* If it is blood, it could be the blood of some 14th century person.
The author claims that historical, iconographic, pathological, physical, and chemical evidence points to its inauthenticity.Even if the pollen grains weren't introduced by some pious fraud, they could have been carried to the shroud by anyone who handled it.In short, the pollen grains could have originated in Jerusalem at any time before or after the appearance of the shroud in Italy. Moreover, that there are two cloths believed to have been wrapped around the dead body of Jesus does not strengthen the claim that the shroud is authentic, but weakens it.Some believers think the crown of thorns was made of this type of tumbleweed. His sample of pollen grains originated with Max Frei, who tape-lifted pollen grain samples from the shroud.
Frei's pollen grains have been controversial from the beginning.
It is also claimed that the image is not a painting but a miraculously transposed image.