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The other defining feature of autism, for Kanner, was “an obsessive insistence on sameness”: most simply in the form of repetitive, stereotyped movements and noises (“stereotypies”); then in the adoption of elaborate rituals and routines; finally, in the appearance of strange, narrow preoccupations—highly focussed, intense fascinations and fixations. But it was not until the nineteen-seventies that Beate Hermelin and Neil O’Connor and their colleagues in London, trained in the new discipline of cognitive psychology, focussed on the mental structure of autism in a more systematic way.
The appearance of such fascinations and the adoption of such rituals, often before the age of five, were not to be seen, Kanner and Asperger thought, in any other condition. they seem to take in things with short, peripheral glances. Their work (and that of Lorna Wing, in particular) suggested that in all autistic individuals there was a core problem, a consistent triad of impairments: impairment of social interaction with others, impairment of verbal and nonverbal communication, and impairment of play and imaginative activities.
It is often not recognized in the first year of life, but tends to become obvious in the second or third year.
Though Asperger regarded it as a biological defect of affective contact—innate, inborn, analogous to a physical or intellectual defect—Kanner tended to view it as a psychogenic disorder, a reflection of bad parenting, and most especially of a chillingly remote, often professional “refrigerator mother.” At this time, autism was often regarded as “defensive” in nature, or confused with “childhood schizophrenia.” A whole generation of parents—mothers, particularly—were made to feel guilty for the autism of their children.
This book is an autobiography combined with information on autism, with plenty of animal anecdotes thrown in, as well ... She is currently an associate professor of animal sciences at Colorado State University and a frequent lecturer at autism meetings throughout the country.
had spent a few days with the prodigious Stephen Wiltshire, an autistic savant in London with incredible drawing ability.
It has attracted in the popular mind an amazed, fearful, or bewildered attention (and perhaps engendered mythical or archetypal figures: the alien, the changeling, the child bewitched). A majority of Kanner-type children are retarded, often severely; a significant proportion have seizures, and may have “soft” neurological signs and symptoms—a whole range of repetitive or automatic movements, such as spasms, tics, rocking, spinning, finger play, or flapping of the hands; problems of coördination and balance; peculiar difficulties, sometimes, in initiating movements, akin to what is seen in parkinsonism.
And yet it was only in the nineteen-forties that it was medically described—almost simultaneously, as it happened—by Leo Kanner, in Baltimore, and Hans Asperger, in Vienna, both of whom, independently, converged on the term “autism.”Kanner’s and Asperger’s accounts were in many ways strikingly (at times uncannily) similar—a nice example of historical synchronicity—but Asperger’s account, published in German, remained largely unknown for four decades, and was translated into English only in 1991. The use of language always appears abnormal, unnatural. There may also be, very prominently, a large range of abnormal (and often “paradoxical”) sensory responses, with some sensations being heightened and even intolerable, others (which may include pain perception) being diminished or apparently absent.
I had paid flying visits to several schools for autistic children.The picture of “classical infantile autism” is a formidable one.Most people—and, indeed, most physicians—if asked about autism, summon up a picture of a profoundly disabled child, with stereotyped movements, perhaps head-banging; rudimentary language; almost inaccessible: a creature for whom very little future lies in store.Indeed, in a strange way, most people speak only of autistic children and never of autistic adults, as if the children somehow just vanished from the earth.